Steps educators can take to ensure the success of male students
Few would argue that boys and girls aren’t different—in their classroom behavior, their socialization and their play. During the past decade, researchers have published work indicating a growing achievement gap
in boys’ and girls’ reading and writing skills. These researchers have also shared other attention-grabbing statistics:
In elementary school, boys are diagnosed with learning and attention disorders four times as often as girls, writes Peg Tyre in The Trouble With Boys.
Nearly twice as many boys are being retained as girls, according to Richard Whitmire, author of Why Boys Fail.
Boys are involved in 80 percent of discipline problems, according to Michael Gurian, who wrote The Minds of Boys.
Although educators have historically focused on ensuring that girls are afforded equal opportunities in schools, the so-called “boy problem” is causing many educators to re-examine their practices to ensure they reach every student. “There are no differences in what boys and girls can learn, but there are different ways to teach them,” says Dr. Bill McBride, an author and educational consultant on gender differences.
McBride points to variances in brain development for girls and boys. One of the last areas to fully develop is the prefrontal cortex, where the brain handles organization, analysis, strategizing and synthesis. McBride cites Dr. Leonard Sax’s research: “Differences between a same-age girl and a same-age boy are larger than differences between, say, a 7-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl.” According to McBride, a female brain is fully developed by about age 21, whereas a male brain is not fully developed until a male reaches his late 20s or even age 30.
So what’s an educator to do?
Let them play
Recess—which, in this age of standardized testing, often ends up on the chopping block—could be one answer. Tyre references a University of Minnesota research study indicating that successful peer interaction at recess was an excellent predictor of standardized-test success. She also writes that the percentage of boys being prescribed medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased dramatically along with the focus on standardized tests. When movement is limited, boys sometimes channel energy in negative ways in the classroom.
“[Boys] might be more susceptible to as-yet-unknown environmental or chemical causes of [ADHD],” Tyre writes. “But other factors—including higher academic expectations, zero-tolerance policies and [the] shrinking of recess may be making boys’ behavior seem less normal and more pathological.” McBride suggests that teachers incorporate opportunities for movement in lessons, such as creative dramatics, pantomime, singing, dancing, etc.
Model higher-level thinking
Educators and parents should also teach and model higher-level thinking skills, such as organization, acting less impulsively, and thinking through decisions. “Because boys will act without thinking, adults need to explain cause and effect to young males,” McBride says.
Modeling simple activities such as organizing a backpack, desk or notebook can help boys overcome organizational difficulties.
Make sure they can read
Boys are frequently later to mature in language development than girls, so Tyre suggests educators “take care to ensure boys are reading at grade level and with fluency” and recommends using systematic phonics with boys. “They don’t ‘catch up later’—poor readers struggle all through school,” Tyre writes.
McBride recommends providing boys with books that “play to their spatial-mechanical mind.” “Boys want to see action, competition and, yes, fictional violence,” he says.
Educators can also help parents better understand their role in modeling literacy and other behaviors. Tyre writes: “I think parents have a big role to play in this: They must help their sons see the importance of literacy for adult men—boys need to see dads reading the paper, dads reading the good night story, [and] dads reading for work and for fun.”
Strategies for active students, both male and female
Allow a child to stand instead of sit at a desk.
Give students frequent breaks to socialize and move.
Take kids outside to complete work on clipboards.
Allow free play during recess.
Don’t take away recess or physical activity as a punishment.
Be patient with students’ developmental timelines.